Welcome to CASCADe
CASCADe addresses bridge design as an integrated process within a Cooperative System Design Methodology, a holistic perspective that supports the detection and solution of conflicts (including human errors), inconsistencies and redundancies during design time. CASCADe will use this methodology to develop an Adaptive Bridge System that allows the reconfiguration of information content, its distribution and presentation on user interfaces in response to the current situation, any relevant procedures and the needs of the individual seafarer.
Human factors on the bridge
In 2010 644 vessels were involved in 559 accidents in and around EU waters, with 61 seafarers losing their lives. Other research has shown that seafarers are 26 times more likely to have a fatal accident at work compared to other British workers. Human factors related dimensions such as fatigue, automation, situation awareness, communication, decision making, team work, health and stress have all been cited as important contributors to this consistently high accident rate.
Human Factors research in the Maritime domain has traditionally focused upon individual seafarers and individual parameters, such as exposure to noise, or the effect of watchkeeping schedules on fatigue. CASCADe will move beyond this by considering the ship as a whole – as a complex and interconnected system which can only achieve its goals co-operatively. Research at project partner Cardiff University introduced the idea of considering multiple factors when looking at outcomes such as fatigue and health (the ‘combined effects model’. CASCADe will take this work one step further by looking at how multiple factors have an impact in a multi -agent environment, e.g. situation awareness (concerning the running of the ship, what needs to be monitored and where potential dangers lie) is distributed amongst crew members. By further investigating and modelling this distributed situational awareness, CASCADe will reveal how decisions are made on board ship and then work towards improving this process to enhance safety.
Modelling the bridge
Formal modelling of a ship bridge seen as a cooperative system includes modelling of all involved tasks, agents (human and machine) and the environment.
Task modelling languages describe tasks as a temporally ordered hierarchical
tree of goals (e.g. berthing), sub goals (e.g. obtain clearance to enter port, manoeuvre to parallel position to berth, manoeuvre ship to final position) and actions (e.g. reduce speed to less than 15cm/s, communicate with Tug master).The task tree shows the mental and behavioural steps involved in each sub goal.
Annotations can be added to capture responsibilities, conditions, duration, frequency and priorities. Based on task trees, performance criteria such as execution time, learning time and memory load can be computed.
Models of machine agents e.g. bridge systems (e.g. Radar, ECDIS, AIS, VDR) can be built using system design tools such as MatLab, SCADE or Statemate.
Models of the environment of a ship bridge including the vessel and traffic environment are provided by commercial bridge simulators.
In CASCADe these individual models will be integrated by developing a Virtual Simulation Platform which enables closed-loop simulation of the whole cooperative bridge system.
The TRANSAS bridge simulator provided by project partner RAY will be the basis for the development of both platforms for simulating the vessel and traffic environment.
The virtual simulation platform will provide a means for system design teams to simulate a vast number of scenarios in a fully automatic way.